During the repair of an apartment or private home, special attention is paid to the surface of the floor. Arrangement of the correct floor screed with a cement mixture is carried out according to a clear technology. Only in this way you can achieve the necessary thickness of a perfectly flat surface, prepared for further processing.
Determining the level of the horizon and the height difference of the floor
Not always the floor slabs of the premises have an even plane and exposed in the correct horizontal position. This causes inconvenience in the laying of facing material. The way out was a construction technique – “screed” with cement. To the result of the work met the required level of quality, it is necessary to comply with certain technical requirements. Before starting the work, the “horizon” is set correctly. This can be done with the help of special laser devices or a water level. The work is carried out in all rooms.
- At a distance of 1-1.5 meters from the floor a mark is placed and by means of a construction ruler is transferred to all vertical planes of the room and adjacent rooms in the apartment. The straight line connecting all the points on the walls, and will be a zero level.
- Measure from the obtained horizontal straight line to the floor slab around the perimeter of the room. Above the frequent notches, the measurement values are indicated. The smallest of them means the highest position of the structure. The difference of the two positions will show the required level of the height difference.
- For cladding different areas of the floor with several variants of coatings, it is necessary to achieve a correct and accurate alignment of the ends. Since the cladding has a different thickness from each other, the layers of cement screeds are made at different heights. This method maximizes the alignment of the surface ready for use.
- In the process of laying parquet, several layers of different construction material are used: the board itself, plywood, mastic and glue. The size of a thick layer of all the elements are put together, and another 1 mm is added for smoothing. The result is the thickness indicator at the level difference at the junction of the two different coatings.
The quality of the selected mix and the necessary tools
Ready construction material is sold in pre-packaged bags of different volumes. Masters can already add cement and polymer compositions there themselves. The market offers a huge range of cement mixtures, among which there are many fakes. It is necessary to carefully study the recommendations for use. Individual compositions are selected for different thicknesses of screeds. If the mixture is of good quality, then the mixing of cement will only “harm”. Builders also exclude the possibility of adding PVA glue. Dry cement material has a gray color without the option of additional shades. Plasticizers are introduced into the mortar according to the instructions on the package. Performing the device of the cement-sand screed, the following and tools should be on hand:
- laser-type instrument for determining the level or a construction ruler with a water-corrector;
- tape measure;
- trowel and knife;
- a drill and a special nozzle for stirring the mortar;
- self-tapping screws, screwdrivers;
- fixing profile and, directly, the mixture for the floor.
The surface of the floor is thoroughly cleaned from the remains of building materials and other debris. The clean area is primed and leveled. This must be done so that the screed device will “adhere” well to the floor slab. After marking the entire perimeter of the draw a horizontal straight line method of combining all the points. To the resulting lines attached profile and glue it to the wall with cement mortar.
Preparation of the mortar according to the technology
If you buy a ready-made powdered consistency, you only need to pour the future mortar with water. If the mixture is prepared at home, then cement, sand and water are taken in the proportions 1:3:1 respectively. The finished slurry should not be thicker than sour cream. The amount of such a substance should be enough for 1 m² of flooring. Start working from the far corner of the room. In a small area unload a little of the consistency on the floor and begin to level. The level of the poured concrete should cover the top of the profiles. If the boundaries with height differences are determined, the formwork is made for the strength of the entire future construction. In this way the entire area is treated. For large level differences use expanded clay. It will make the weight for the screed lighter. In the process of drying, the device of the cement screed should be sprinkled with water. This will prevent the mortar from cracking. Or as another option – cover the top with polyethylene. According to the technology, the period for complete drying of concrete is 4 weeks. Only after this period, you can proceed to further construction work.
The method of semi-dry levelling
This is a more complex process. It involves the addition of fibers. The mixture is of semi-dry type. It is tamped to a certain thickness on the desired surfaces. Fibre acts as an additional stiffener for the screed. It is a good alternative to the iron mesh. The latter can rust in the pouring and crack. Advantages of fiberglass:
- resistance to different temperature regimes;
- does not succumb to mechanical damage;
- no cracks;
- the technology provides for the readiness of the surface to use in a day.