During the major repairs have to deal not only with finishing and alignment of the walls and ceiling, but very often the floor. In our apartments, especially in older buildings, the floor base is rarely even, so for a high-quality finish it is necessary to fill screed. Among the materials used to manufacture screed floor in the apartment, most often used: cement, sand, fiberglass, various additives or ready-made mixtures, which include most of the necessary components. Consider in detail the materials used.
For quality coverage it is necessary to select a good sand. The best results are achieved by using washed and sifted sand. In our country it is usually produced by hydro-mechanized method in numerous quarries. When used for concrete production is a necessary factor in its purity and the average size of sand grains in the fraction. Clay, silt, rock debris and shells are common companions in the extraction process. These impurities negatively affect the quality of the composition.
Cement is one of the most common binders used in construction today. It is made from certain types of clay, which are sintered in ovens. And then milled to a finely dispersed state. Different compositions are used to make various grades of cement. The properties are also influenced by special additives.
For its manufacture, polypropylene fiber is taken. It is used to create a material with a certain structure, which is well suited for reinforcing concrete. Fiber is much cheaper than steel reinforcement. Having good properties, in many places it comes to replace it. Fibers added to the mortar provides additional strength and rigidity of the floor. In addition to screeds, it is successfully used for plastering walls and making building blocks. The presence of fiber in the mortar eliminates the possibility of cracks after drying, increases the durability of the surface, reduces moisture absorption and increases resistance to abrasion.
Tape is used to compensate for the expansion of the poured floor screed in the apartment during the curing process. It well insulates walls, protruding parts of structures, columns from contact with concrete. Thus, it eliminates the threat of stresses that can destroy the surface. The tape is characterized by good flexibility, thermal insulation qualities, elasticity, resistance to chemical aggressive materials. Simple and convenient damping tape is the ideal assistant for the arrangement of poured floors. The tape consists of polyethylene foam with an adhesive layer on one or both sides. The material is economical, durable, with low thermal conductivity, well holds foreign sound. Due to its properties damper tape hermetically seals gaps, various gaps, keeps heat. It does not let steam, moisture, extraneous odors and noises through.
In recent years, in particular demand among professional builders and owners of apartments engaged in self-repair, are ready-made professional mixes for making screed floor in the apartment. Specially developed by manufacturers ready-made formulations are easy to use, plastic, with good fluidity. Compared with compositions that need to create yourself from various components, they have several advantages:
- Curing time. Ready mixes dry much faster than conventional concrete. After 5 hours, you can walk on the poured floor, the full hardening comes in half a month. Conventional concrete on it may take a month. Some fast mixes allow you to walk in two hours.
- Quality. To create mixtures, manufacturers use fine-fractional fillers, which create an even, almost smooth structure on the surface after hardening.
- Ease of use. The finished product is suitable for work even for inexperienced repairmen. If you follow the instructions on the package correctly, even a complete beginner will get a good result. Ready-made screed product allows you to apply it in apartments with low ceilings, because the layer height is less than conventional concretes.
Types of ready-to-use mixes
According to the way of working with them, mixtures are made into self-leveling and needing to be manually straightened. The first are able to spread well over the base, creating an even surface, almost without human intervention. As a result, the top layer is almost horizontal. For large rooms, a pump can be used for pumping. After the screed is poured, the composition hardens quickly. After curing, you can immediately use the final coating: ceramic tiles, cork, linoleum or carpet. The other category of compositions requires leveling with mechanical tools: trowel, roller, rule. A man has to take an active part in leveling the surface before it has time to cure. In terms of their composition such mixtures contain coarser fractions and are mainly designed for priming the rough floor.